英语里最常见的6种时态,到底怎么用
  • 作者:admin
  • 发表时间:2018-04-13 15:33
  • 来源:未知

时和体虽然是两个不同的类别,但它们总是出现在一起。

 

英语中有六个时态和两种语体。参考时态和语体,我们可以在实际运用中谈论下列结构。

注意:进行体也被称为连续体。

 

 

1
 
 

 

一般现在时(现在时态+一般体)

Present Simple (present tense + common aspect)

 

 

肯定句:主语+动词原形
注:对于第三人称单数(他/她/它),要在动词原形后加“s”

I/ You/ We/ They work in a bank.
我/你/我们/他们在银行工作。

He/ She works in a bank.
他/她在银行工作。

否定句:主语+don’t/ doesn’t+动词原形

I/ You/ We/ They don’t (do not) work.
我/你/我们/他们不工作。

He/ She/ It doesn’t (does not) work.
他/她/它不工作。

疑问句:疑问词+助动词do/does+主语+动词原形

Where do I/ you/we/they work?
我/你/我们/他们在哪里工作?

Where does he/ she work?
他/她在哪里工作?


适用场合:

Usual, regular action
经常,规律的行为

I usually go fishing at weekends. I don’t go fishing at weekends. Do I go fishing at weekends?
我通常在周末去钓鱼。我周末不去钓鱼。我周末去钓鱼吗?

She never puts milk in her tea. She doesn’t put milk in her tea. Does she ever put milk in her tea?
她从不把牛奶放进茶里。她不把牛奶放在茶里。她把牛奶放进茶里了吗?

 

 

We sometimes go to the cinema on Friday. We don’t go to the cinema on Friday. Do we go to the cinema on Fridays?
我们有时星期五去看电影。我们星期五不去看电影。我们星期五去看电影吗?

They never walk in the wood. They don’t walk in the wood. Do they walk in the wood?
他们从不在树林里散步。他们不在树林里散步。他们在树林里散步吗?

General existence; stating a fact:
普遍存在;陈述事实:


An ostrich has two legs. A rabbit doesn’t have two legs. How many legs does a spider have?
鸵鸟有两条腿。兔子没有两只腿。蜘蛛有多少条腿?

The earth goes round the sun. The sun doesn’t go round the earth. Does the moon go round the earth?
地球绕着太阳转。太阳不会绕着地球转。月亮绕着地球转吗?

Water is liquid at room temperature. Gold isn’t liquid at room temperature. Is gold solid at room temperature?
水在室温下是液态的。黄金在室温下不是液态的。金子在室温下是固体的吗?

Dramatic narrative (theatre, sports, etc. events):
戏剧性的叙述(戏剧、体育等):

Johnson takes the ball, he bounces it to the floor, then he throws and scores two points.
约翰逊拿到球,他把球反弹到地板上,然后投了两分。

Timetables
时间表

 

 

The train leaves at half past four. The train doesn’t leave at five. What time does the train leave?
火车四点半发车,可是现在五点了还不开。火车什么时候发车?

The course starts on 1 July. The course doesn’t start in June. When does the course start?
课程从7月1号开始,六月份这个课还没开课呢。课程什么时候开始?

 

 

2
 
 

 

现在进行时(现在时+进行体)

Present Progressive (present tense + progressive aspect)

 

 

肯定句:主语+be动词+动词ing形式

You are cooking.
你正在做饭。

否定句:主语+be not+动词ing形式

You aren’t (are not) cooking.
你没在做饭。

疑问句:疑问词+ be动词 +主语+动词ing形式

What are you cooking?
你正在做什么饭?

 

适用场合:

Action happening now:
表示正在发生的动作:


 I’m watching a film on TV now. I‘m not watching a film. Am I watching a film?
我正在看电视上的电影。我现在没在看电影。我正在看电影吗?

Watch out, a car’s coming. It isn’t not coming. Is it coming?
当心,汽车要来了。汽车没来。汽车要来了吗?

The boys are sleeping upstairs. They boys aren’t sleeping upstairs. Are the boys sleeping upstairs?
孩子们正在楼上睡觉。孩子们没在楼上睡觉。孩子们正在楼上睡觉吗?

Action happening about this time, but not necessarily now:
表示最近一段时间内进行的行为,不一定是现在正在做的。


He‘s studying Spanish and German. He‘s not studying French. What languages is he studying?
他在学习西班牙语和德语。他没在学法语。他在学习什么语言?

They‘re going to a business course. They aren’t going to a cooking course. What course are they going to?
他们要去上商业课。他们没去上烹饪课。他们要去上什么课?

 

 

Definite arrangement in the near future:
表示近期内的明确安排:


I‘m travelling to Paris tomorrow. I‘m not travelling to Paris tomorrow. Am I travelling to Paris tomorrow?
我明天要去巴黎旅行。我明天不去巴黎旅行。我明天要去巴黎旅行吗?

You‘re going to Italy on holiday this year, aren’t you? You aren’t going to Greece. Where are you going on holiday this year?
你今年要去意大利度假,不是吗?你不打算去希腊。今年你打算去哪里度假?
 

 

3
 
 

 

一般过去时(过去时态+一般体)

Past Simple (past tense + common aspect)

 

 

肯定句:主语+动词一般过去式

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They lived in London ten years ago.
十年前,我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们生活在伦敦。

否定句:主语+助动词didn't+动词原形

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They didn’t like the film.
我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们不喜欢这个电影。

疑问句:疑问词+did+主语+动词原形

Where did I/ you/ he/ she/ it/ we/ they meet Richard?
在哪里我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们遇见的理查德?
 

适用场合:

Actions, events in the past:
表示发生在过去的动作,事件:


Mother went to work on Tuesday. Mother didn’t go to work on Tuesday. Did Mother go to work on Tuesday?
妈妈星期二去上班了。妈妈星期二没去上班。妈妈星期二去上班了吗?

You did the shopping this morning. You didn’t do the shopping this morning. Where did you do the shopping this morning?
你今天早上去买东西了。你今天早上没去买东西。今天上午你在哪里买的东西?
 

 

4
 
 

 

过去进行时(过去时态+进行体)

Past Progressive (past tense + progressive aspect)

 

 

 

肯定句:主语+was/were+动词ing形式

I/He/She was having a shower when you called.
当你打电话给我时,他正在洗澡。

We/ You/ They were watching TV when Bob arrived.
鲍勃来的时候,我们/你们/他们正在看电视。

否定句:主语+wasn't/weren't+动词ing形式

I/ He/ She wasn’t having a shower when you called.
你打来电话时,她没在洗澡。

We/ You/ They weren't watching TV when Bob arrived.
鲍伯来的时候,我们/你们/他们没在看电视。

疑问句:疑问词+was/were+动词ing形式

 

What were you doing when Bob arrived?
当鲍勃来的时候,你在干什么?

What was she doing when you called?
当你打电话的时候,她在干什么?

 

适用场合:

Action in progress in the past:
表示过去正在进行的动作:


I was working in the garden when my sister arrived. I wasn’t working in the garden when my sister arrived. Was I working in the garden when my sister arrived?
我姐姐来的时候,我正在花园里工作。当我姐姐来的时候,我没在花园里工作。我姐姐来的时候,我正在花园工作吗?

 

 

5
 
 

 

现在完成时(现在时态+一般体)

Present Perfect Simple (present perfect tense + common aspect)

 

 

肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词

I/ You/ We/ They have finished the letter.
我/你们/我们/他们已经写完信了。

He/ She has finished the letter.
他/她写完了信。

否定:主语+haven't/hasn't+过去分词

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t finished the letter.
我/你/我们/他们还没写完这封信。

He/ She hasn’t finished the letter.
他/她还没写完这封信。

疑问句:have/has+主语+过去分词

Have I/ you/we/ they finished the letter?
我/你/我们/他们写完信了吗?

Has he/she finished the letter?
他/她写完信了吗?

 

适用场合:

Action with a result:
带有结果的行为:

You‘ve (already) printed the letters. You haven’t printed the letters (yet). Have you printed the letters (yet)?
你已经把信打印好了。你还没有打印这些信呢。你把信打印出来了吗?

We‘ve (already) done the rooms. We haven’t done the rooms yet. Have we done the rooms (yet)?
我们已经把房间整理好了。我们还没整理好房间呢。我们把房间整理好了吗?

 

 

He has already repaired the lawn-mower. He hasn’t repaired the lawn-mower yet. Has he repaired the lawn-mower yet?
他已经修好了割草机。他还没有修理割草机。他修好割草机了吗?

Action in incomplete time:

表示持续性的动作:

I‘ve been to the cinema a lot lately. I haven’t been to the cinema lately. Have I been to the cinema lately?
最近我经常去看电影。我最近没去看电影。我最近去看电影了吗?

You‘ve been on holiday this year. You haven’t been on holiday this year. Have you been on holiday this year?
你今年度假去了。你今年没去度假。今年你去度假了吗?

Action in the past without saying when:

过去某一时刻发生的动作:

You have already swum in this lake. You haven’t swum in this lake yet. Have you ever swum in this lake?
你已经在这个湖里游过泳了。你没有游过这湖。你在这个湖里游过泳吗?

You‘ve been to the hairdresser’s. You haven’t been to the hairdresser’s. Where have you been?
你去过理发店了。你还没去过理发店。你去哪儿了?

Action beginning in the past and still continuing:
表示过去某一时刻开始并一直持续的动作:

You‘ve worked here for two years. You haven’t worked here for two years. How long have you worked here?
你在这里工作两年了。你已经两年没在这里工作了。你在这里工作多久了?

 

 

6
 
 

 

现在完成进行时(现在完成时+进行体)

Present Perfect Progressive (present perfect tense + progressive aspect)

 

 

肯定句:主语+have/has been+动词ing形式

I/ you/ We/ They have been learning English for a year.
我/你/我们/他们学英语已经有一年了。

He/ She has been learning English for a year.
他/她学英语已经有一年了。

否定句:主语+haven’t/hasn’t been+动词ing形式

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t been playing tennis for a long time.
我/你/我们/他们很久没有打网球了。

He/ She hasn’t been playing tennis for a long time.
他/她很久没有打网球了。

疑问句:疑问词+have/has+主语+been 动词ing形式

How long have I/ you/ we/ they been learning English?
我/你/我们/他们学英语多长时间了?

How long has he/ she been learning English?
他/她学英语多长时间了?
 

适用场合:

Action beginning in the past and still continuing (with the progress emphasized):
从过去开始并仍在持续的行动(着重强调的仍在进行):


He has been mowing the lawn all this morning. He hasn’t been mowing the lawn all this morning. How long has he been mowing the lawn?
整个上午他一直在修剪草坪。整个上午他都没有修剪草坪。他修剪草坪多长时间了?